Kepler Optica

A plate from Johannes Kepler’s Ad Vitellionem Paralipomena, quibus Astronomiae Pars Optica (1604), illustrating the structure of eyes.


Image from wikimedia commons (link)

The Renaissance astronomer and astrologer Johannes Kepler is best known for his discovery of the three principles of planetary motion, by which he clarified the spatial organization of the solar system. Moreover, he founded modern optics by presenting the earliest correct explanation of how human beings see. He was the first to set forth accurately what happens to light after it enters a telescope, and he designed a particular form of that instrument. His ideas provided a transition from the ancient geometrical description of the heavens to modern dynamical astronomy, into which he introduced the concept of physical force.

(from Univ Oregon – link)

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Thoracic Outlet Syndrome

Left cervical rib.

This is a radiograph of a patient who has been experiencing intermittent claudication of the left arm for many years.

left cervical rib

Case submitted to Radiopaedia by Dr. Jan Fank Gerstenmaier (link)

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Thumb Dislocation

Thumb dislocation.

thumb dislocation

thumb dislocation

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Club Feet

Clubfoot is a complex deformity that is readily apparent at birth and in some cases is diagnosed by prenatal ultrasound. The goal of treatment is to obtain and maintain correction of the clubfoot so that the patient has a functional, pain-free, plantigrade foot, with good mobility and without calluses, and does not need modified shoes. Parents of infants born with clubfeet and no other significant medical problems should be reassured that their child, when treated by medical experts, will have feet that are fully compatible with a normal, active life. However, it must always be remembered that a clubfoot will never be a normal foot. (from

Image from helpcurenow flickr (link)

Here are baby Moses’ feet after casting.  (for additional images click here)

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