Albinism is a congenital disorder characterized by the complete or partial absence of pigment in the skin, hair and eyes due to absence or defect of an enzyme involved in the production of melanin.

Albinism results from inheriting two recessive genes.  It is associated with a number of vision defects including photophobia (sensitivity to light), nystagmus (rhythmic eye movements), and astigmatism.  These patients are also more prone to sunburns and skin cancers.

In East Africa, these patients face an even greater threat, there is a mistaken belief that albino body parts have great magical powers, so people with albinism have been targeted and killed by unscrupulous dealers who can make up to $75,000 selling a complete dismembered set.  (link) and here and here

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