Category Archives: Urinary

Vesicoureteral reflux

Vesicoureteral reflux (VUR) is an abnormal movement of urine from the bladder into ureters or kidneys. Urine normally travels from the kidneys via the ureters to the bladder. In vesicoureteral reflux the direction of urine flow is reversed (retrograde). (from wikipedia)

Image from Anatomybox.  This VCUG (voiding cystourethrogram) is a still image taken during fluoroscopy demonstrating reflux into both ureters.  The left ureter shows grade 4 reflux and the right ureter shows grade 3.

Clinical case: This 3 month old little girl presented to the hospital with fever at 2 months of age and was treated for a urinary tract infection.  She returns 3 weeks after completion of the treatment with a second UTI.  A renal ultrasound was performed and a vcug showed bilateral urinary reflux.

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In medicine, hemodialysis (also haemodialysis) is a method that is used to achieve the extracorporeal removal of waste products such as creatinine and urea and free water from theblood when the kidneys are in a state of renal failure. Hemodialysis is one of three renal replacement therapies (the other two being renal transplant and peritoneal dialysis). An alternative method for extracorporal separation of blood components such as plasma or cells is apheresis. (from wikipedia)

Image from ClarkMillsfamily.blogspot (link)

Diagram of Hemodialysis

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Kidney development

Growing complexity in the kidney

Dr. Nils Lindstrom earned third place honors in the Nikon small world competition with his video, “Growing complexity in the kidney.”  Dr. Lindstrom’s research is focused on understanding how the kidney and nephrons are patterned during embryonic development. His image, captured as part of his ongoing research on that topic, shows a metanephric kidney, cultured in vitro and imaged over four days. Dr. Lindstrom submitted the time-lapse video because it’s such a striking example of how a kidney starts from a simple structure and gradually becomes a highly complex collecting duct system in a matter of days. He says that how tissues are structured and patterned is a fundamental aspect of kidney development. (from

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Kidney – silver stain

The silver stain showcases reticular fibers.  In this view, three glomeruli can be seen.

NYU virtual microscopy.   Radial Section of Kidney stained with Foot-Hortegas Silver technique (link)

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