Cretinism

Cretinism is a condition of severely stunted physical and mental growth due to untreated congenital deficiency of thyroid hormones (congenital hypothyroidism) usually due to maternal hypothyroidism. (from wikipedia)

Image from Global Skin Atlas (source)

History of child pictured above:  A 3-year-old male toddler presented with mental retardation, short stature,  alopecia, sparse hairs (eyebrows), wide-set eyes, periorbital puffinesss, a broad flat nose, thick lower lip and cool, dry and pale skin. These features are noticed since birth. Thyroid hormones levels were greatly diminished. (From Global Skin Atlas)

Congenital hypothyroidism (CH) is a condition of thyroid hormone deficiency present at birth. Approximately 1 in 4000 newborn infants has a severe deficiency of thyroid function, while even more have mild or partial degrees. If untreated for several months after birth, severe congenital hypothyroidism can lead to growth failure and permanent mental retardation. Treatment consists of a daily dose of thyroid hormone (thyroxine) by mouth. Because the treatment is simple, effective, and inexpensive, nearly all of the developed world practices newborn screening to detect and treat congenital hypothyroidism in the first weeks of life. (from wikipedia)

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