First attempts at transfusions were attempted in the 17th century, however it was after Harvey’s experiments with circulation of blood that more sophisticated research was initiated. The first fully documented blood transfusions occurred on June 15, 1667, and were likely successful due to small volumes of blood being used.
By the mid 1800s blood transfusions were being performed for severe post-partum hemorrhage, and hemophilia. Early transfusion were risky and often resulted in death. (adapted from Wikipedia)
Red Cross blood transfusion history timeline (link)
This historic image, the first photo document of a blood transfusion was taken at Bellevue Hospital by the staff photographer O. G. Mason in the 1870’s