Hydrocephalus, also known as “water in the brain,” is a medical condition in which there is an abnormal accumulation of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) in the ventricles, of the brain.  This may cause increased intracranial pressure and progressive enlargement of the head, convulsion, tunnel vision, and mental disability.  Hydrocephalus can also be fatal. (adapted from wikipedia) 

Image by Alireza Najafian (source drugster.info)

Hydrocephalus treatment is surgical, generally creating various types of cerebral shunts.  It involves the placement of a ventricular catheter (a tube made of silastic), into the cerebral ventricles to bypass the flow obstruction/malfunctioning arachnoidal granulations and drain the excess fluid into other body cavities, from where it can be resorbed.  Most shunts drain the fluid into the peritoneal cavity (ventriculo-peritoneal shunt), but alternative sites include the right atrium (ventriculo-atrial shunt), pleural cavity (ventriculo-pleural shunt), and gallbladder. (wikipedia)

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