The most common causes of splenomegaly in developed countries are infectious mononucleosis, splenic infiltration with cancer cells from a hematological malignancy and portal hypertension (most commonly secondary to liver disease, and Sarcoidosis). Splenomegaly may also come from bacterial infections, such as syphilis or an infection of the heart’s inner lining (endocarditis),

The causes of massive splenomegaly (>1000 g) are much fewer and include:

  • visceral leishmaniasis (kala-azar)
  • chronic myelogenous leukemia
  • myelofibrosis
  • malaria
  • primary lymphoma of spleen

Adapted from wikipedia

The patient below is not from a developed country.  She was treated by the Earthwide Surgical Foundation.

Image from earthwidesurgicalfoundation (link)

“Today we operated on a patient with a large spleen. She was symptomatic with  pain and satiety. Splenomegally is common in the tropics. The causes can be many including parasitic infections (especially malaria), viral infections, blood disorders, infiltrative conditions, congestive splenomegally and tropical splenomegally syndrome. We suspect our lady has a lymphoproliferative disorder since she has a high white count.” (Reblogged from Dr. Camazine’s blogspot)

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